The hidden truths in medicine: What doctors may not always disclose

“The art of medicine consists in amusing the patient while nature cures the disease.”
– Voltaire

The medical profession is rooted in trust and transparency, but there are certain realities that doctors may not readily disclose to their patients. Recognizing these truths can empower patients to make more informed decisions about their health and well-being.

Doctors are highly trained and knowledgeable, yet they are not infallible. They may not always identify the exact cause of a patient’s symptoms, relying instead on a combination of patient history, physical examinations, and diagnostic tests. Conditions with non-specific symptoms, like fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome, often lead to diagnoses of exclusion.

The field of medicine is constantly evolving, with new research and treatments emerging regularly. However, doctors can struggle to stay current with the latest developments amidst their demanding schedules. This can result in some physicians being unaware of the most effective treatments for certain conditions.

By recognizing these hidden truths, patients can engage more effectively in their health care, ask more informed questions, and collaborate with their doctors to make better decisions about their health. Here are some common realities that doctors might not share with their patients:

1. Diagnostic uncertainty

Despite their extensive training and expertise, doctors are not infallible. They may not always identify the exact cause of a patient’s symptoms. A diagnosis often relies on a combination of patient history, symptoms, and test results, but this process is not always precise. For instance, in cases of fibromyalgia, patients often experience widespread pain without a clear cause. Diagnoses are typically made based on symptom criteria rather than definitive tests, leading to uncertainty and frustration for patients. According to the NIH, the difficulty in diagnosing chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has been well-documented. CFS presents with symptoms like extreme fatigue, but the exact cause is often elusive, making it challenging for doctors to provide a clear diagnosis.

2. Under-disclosed risks

While ethical and legal standards require doctors to inform patients about the risks associated with treatments or procedures, full disclosure is not always practiced. Some doctors might downplay or omit certain risks to avoid causing unnecessary anxiety or to encourage patient compliance. For example, the risks associated with opioid prescriptions for chronic pain were often understated, contributing to the opioid crisis. A study on informed consent practices in surgical procedures in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that many patients felt inadequately informed about the potential risks and benefits of their surgeries.

3. Keeping up with medical advances

The field of medicine is constantly evolving, with new research and treatments emerging regularly. However, doctors can struggle to stay abreast of the latest developments amidst their demanding schedules. For example, despite significant advancements in cancer treatments, not all oncologists may be aware of the latest targeted therapies or immunotherapies. A survey conducted by the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) revealed that only about 30% of oncologists felt confident in their knowledge of the latest cancer treatment guidelines. While this may come as a huge shock to cancer patients, the sad truth of life is that similar numbers apply to all medical specialties.

4. Outcome uncertainty

Doctors generally aim to maintain a positive outlook when discussing the potential outcomes of treatments and procedures with their patients. However, this optimism can sometimes lead to unrealistic expectations. For example, the success rates of certain fertility treatments, like in vitro fertilization (IVF), are often presented optimistically, which might not align with the actual statistical success rates. A study in the BMJ found that patients undergoing IVF often overestimated their chances of success due to overly optimistic presentations by their doctors. While some of this is due to medical marketing, it also stems from doctors’ limited knowledge of true outcomes in some instances.

5. The limits of medicine

Modern medicine has made remarkable strides, but it is not always capable of providing cures for every condition. Many illnesses, such as chronic pain syndromes, autoimmune diseases, and certain types of cancer, remain incurable. Doctors may focus on managing symptoms and improving quality of life rather than offering a definitive cure. A sad example of this fact is multiple sclerosis (MS), which is a chronic autoimmune disease for which there is currently no cure. Treatment focuses on managing symptoms and slowing disease progression.


While doctors strive to help and support their patients, there are inherent limitations and challenges within the medical field that may not always be openly discussed. Recognizing these hidden truths can help patients make more informed decisions about their health. It is vital for patients to:

Ask questions. Inquire about diagnoses, treatment options, and risks.

Stay informed. Keep up with the latest medical research and advancements.

Set realistic expectations. Understand the potential outcomes and limitations of treatments.

Collaborate with doctors. Work together to manage chronic conditions and improve quality of life.

By adopting these proactive approaches, patients can more effectively manage their health care journeys, ensuring they are well-informed, actively engaged, and better positioned to receive the highest quality of care available.

“The important thing is not to stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existence.”
— Albert Einstein

Shakeel Ahmed is a gastroenterologist. 

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